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  #41  
Unread January 6th, 2005, 08:51 AM
Rita Schaad Rita Schaad is offline
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Default Re: Cumulative Discussion of CCWAA, Volume 3, Chapters I-XII

Henry
many thanks for your reply. It has prompted various new thoughts.
The final goal appears to be an Ideal then,rather than a firm concept.
You call it 'almost sacred' - beautiful - it's so personal, a creative construct . Could one also say, it is subject to change, as all is in growth, and therefor adjustments become necessary in the style of life - keeping in mind as you pointed out, the benefits or burdens to oneself and others. Isn't that the essence of the Golden Rule?
What I appreciate so enourmously in these Adlerian principles is the emphasis on wholeness - as individuals and as part within the human race/community.

What I like to learn from that is to encourage others, specially the children I work with, to consider other options and avenues, learn to choose, reflect and reach further and so become mentally flexible people, hoping to spare them the stress that could lead them into a 'neurotic trap'.

Rita
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  #42  
Unread January 6th, 2005, 10:15 AM
Trevor Hjertaas Trevor Hjertaas is offline
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Default Re: Discussion of CCWAA, Vol. 3, Ch. XIII & XIV (Hallucination, Parent Education)

These comments relate to chapter XIII. I found Adler's brief essay on hallucinations very interesting. In particular, I noted two points: The role of interpersonal distance in the creation of hallucination and thus the relation between social feeling and reality testing; and also, Adler suggests that the hallucination, like any creation of the individual, is a reflection of the style of life, and must be understood within that context.

These factors are well understood by Adlerians and are really quite profound. The first being philosophical and relating to the consensually agreed-upon nature of reality, as has been discussed previously in this forum. And the second indicating a means to "make sense" of psychopathological productions, thus facilitating psychological treatment - something which many are, of course, quite pessimistic about when it comes to those with psychosis.

Trevor Hjertaas, Psy. D.
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  #43  
Unread January 6th, 2005, 10:37 AM
Henry Stein Henry Stein is offline
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Default Re: Cumulative Discussion of CCWAA, Volume 3, Chapters I-XII

Rita, the fictional final goal, although an ideal, is a relatively "firm" end point, not usually changing over time. In that respect, an adult may be self-guided consistently in a direction that was adopted in childhood. The goal may have degrees of rigidity/flexibility, in relation to the changing demands of reality. In a "normal" person, the fictional final goal acts as an ideal or preference, but can be deviated from when it does not fit well dealing with the current situation. In a "neurotic" person, there are persistent attempts to bend all situations to fit the goal, usually resulting in much stress and conflict. In a "psychotic" person, the goal is already realized as a delusion. However, it is possible to transcend a fictional final goal; in a "self-actualizing" individual, an abstract value has replaced the concrete goal, yielding the most creative, flexible relationship with reality and the pursuit of mutual benefit. Check "The Goal-Redirection Stage" of Classical Adlerian Psychotherapy, described at http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homep...n/theoprac.htm.

The Socratic Method is an ideal strategy for helping children and adults to consider alternatives and develop mental flexibility. It is consistent with Adler's values of respect, equality, and encouragement. Take a look at "Adler and Socrates: Similarities and Differences" at http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homep...n/socrates.htm.
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  #44  
Unread January 7th, 2005, 01:32 AM
Manu Jaaskelainen Manu Jaaskelainen is offline
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Default Re: Discussion of CCWAA, Vol. 3, Ch. XIII & XIV (Hallucination, Parent Education)

Yes, I feel that one significant contribution, perhaps the one that is of pervasive value, of the Vienna-group of early psychologists was their belief that one should listen to the people and try to understand their problems, rather than to punish them, or otherwise treat people with mental problems in inhuman way. In this respect, Alfred Adler was more consequent than anyone else in the group. However, I would like someone to comment Adler's paper On Educating Parents (Ch. XIV). Here Adler says e.g that words can heal, that words may wound, that children resist the words of the educators. There is a phenomenon Adler calls "negative dependency" that develops as a result of continuing negative feelings, and that is even a greater danger than obedience. These ideas, and many others in the paper make it clear that Adler had very early (1912) a deep understanding of personal and interpersonal dynamics. Would someone like to comment on the theses presented in this paper?
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  #45  
Unread January 7th, 2005, 09:01 AM
Rita Schaad Rita Schaad is offline
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Default Re: Cumulative Discussion of CCWAA, Volume 3, Chapters I-XII

thanks you so much again Henry for your clarifications.
Yes I will have a look at those sites, will give me good reading material over the weekend.
sunny greetings from down under - Rita
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  #46  
Unread January 7th, 2005, 04:21 PM
Henry Stein Henry Stein is offline
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Default Re: Cumulative Discussion of CCWAA, Volume 3, Chapters I-XII

Rita, your "sunny" greetings from down under are very timely. We are house-bound under a beautiful, but undrivable blanket of winter snow in Bellingham, Washington. Last winter, we waited two weeks to drive into town from our rural location. Fortunately, the Internet keeps us connected to the rest of the world. Whenever I walk to the mailbox, I remember Adler's advice for walking on ice and snow. One of my students from California planned to visit today, but the roads are too icy.
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  #47  
Unread January 8th, 2005, 12:26 PM
Henry Stein Henry Stein is offline
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Default Re: Discussion of CCWAA, Vol. 3, Ch. XIII & XIV (Hallucination, Parent Education)

As Adler states in Chapter XIV, words can heal or wound a child--but mostly, words can stimulate him to think. If we assume that the small child wants to develop his physical and mental powers, then we can be an ally in that process. Issuing orders, bribing, and threatening do not stimulate a child's deeper thinking, but merely provoke his superficial cleverness to defeat his dominating adversary. Friendly, respectful questioning is generally irresistible to children, especially if they get the impression that we believe they are capable of reaching good conclusions. A series of leading questions can help a child gradually consider motives, alternatives, and consequences. A decision that he makes himself is more apt to be followed, than a demand issued by an external authority.

In this chapter, Adler also makes it clear that many parents have "unfinished emotional business" from their own childhoods that can burden and exploit their children. It is seductive for a discouraged, ambitious adult to act out their yearning for absolute power with a child in the family.

Too many of the Adlerian child guidance programs in North America emphasize the child's discouragement, misbehavior, and mistaken goals, but generally ignore addressing the impact of the mistaken goals of parents. Many years ago, Hugh Missildine, wrote a book titled Your Inner Child of the Past. He delineated several dysfunctional parenting styles: over-indulgent, over-submissive, over-coercive, excessively responsible, perfectionistic, neglecting, rejecting, punitive, hypchondrical, and sexually stimulating. Although Missildine was not an Adlerian, his ideas fit Adler's principles of encouragement, respect, and equality.

Most parents want their children "to behave," and teachers want their students "to cooperate." What they often mean is that they want the children to "be obedient." They look for strategies to control children, rather than win them, and may even distort some of the Adlerian child guidance principles (like logical consequences) to suit their objective. Parent educators who are not trained psychotherapists, have little potential for recognizing and correcting many of the dysfunctional parental attitudes.
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  #48  
Unread January 9th, 2005, 10:03 AM
George Neeson George Neeson is offline
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Default Re: Cumulative Discussion of CCWAA, Volume 3, Chapters I-XII

OK I'll bite. What advice did Adler give about walking on ice and snow? That's a new one to me.
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  #49  
Unread January 9th, 2005, 10:59 AM
Henry Stein Henry Stein is offline
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Default Re: Cumulative Discussion of CCWAA, Volume 3, Chapters I-XII

I can't find the published source of this advice for walking on ice or light snow, so it may have been through Sophia de Vries. At any rate, it works for me. Make each step a very gentle, downward movement and keep up a slow, smooth, consistent forward movement. (Imagine walking lightly on egg shells.) Of course, the best advice, is not to walk on ice. However, I am open to any other techniques for negotiating a slippery surface.
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  #50  
Unread January 9th, 2005, 10:13 PM
Henry Stein Henry Stein is offline
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Default Discussion of CCWAA, Vol. 3, Chapt. XV & XVI (Root and Treatment of Neurosis)

On January 10th, we will begin a discussion of The Collected Clinical Works of Alfred Adler, Volume 3, Chapters XV & XVI. The following chapter summaries were prepared by Manu Jaaskelainen.

Chapter XV, on "Organic Substrata of Psychoneuroses", is a paper on the development of the neurotic character. This paper was written (1912) after the first edition of "The Nervous Character" (see CCWAA, Vol. 1) was published. In this paper, Adler defines the neurosis as unconsciously set goal that springs from a tendency for compensation or security (p. 107). In the paper, Adler refers to Vaihinger (final fictions), Henri Bergson (élan vital) and Ludwig Klages (expressive movements as a means of personality diagnosis). A detailed criticism of Freud's libido-concept is presented here. What Adler feels is important in neurosis, is the unconsciously created life-style, or guiding idea, not any sexual fixations. In spite of its title, the paper argues very strongly for the psychological origin of the neurotic character. Organic substratum tends to remain gradually more on the background.

Chapter XVI, "Individual Psychological Treatment of Neuroses", is a paper on psychotherapy. The chapter has following sections: A) Inferiority feelings and compensation, B) The arrangement of the neurosis, C) The psychic treatment of neurosis. Adler tells that the "understanding the language of symptoms that has become the primary prerequisite for a successful psychotherapeutic treatment." (p. 117). The client may have problems because he/she wants to go in contradictory directions. In section B, Adler argues that the personality ideal is formed by a tendency to be superior. The goal of superiority is a hindrance because it makes objective assessment of the life-situations impossible. In section C, Adler says that the task of changing the client is mainly a task for the client. He/she bears the responsibility for himself/herself.

To prepare for a discussion of Volume 3 of "The Collected Clinical Works of Alfred Adler," order your copy at http://go.ourworld.nu/hstein/cwaa-v3.htm.
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