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  #31  
Unread December 26th, 2004, 10:41 AM
Henry Stein Henry Stein is offline
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Default Re: Discussion of CCWAA, Vol. 3, Chapt. VIII-X (Resistance, Sexual Fears, Adler Resigns)

Yes, in Chapter VIII Pestalozzi's statement is dramatic, but understandable in the case of someone who has "long and seriously been neglected," whose picture of the world is most probably of a cold, uncaring place. So even a psychotherapist may initially be seen with skepticism and mistrust. Interestingly, that same "hatred and animosity" may also be nurtured by a "long and severely pampered" person--in the event that the pampering is discontinued.
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Last edited by Henry Stein; December 26th, 2004 at 10:49 AM. Reason: Corrected spelling.
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  #32  
Unread December 26th, 2004, 10:59 AM
Henry Stein Henry Stein is offline
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Default Re: Discussion of CCWAA, Vol. 3, Chapt. XI & XII (Organ Dialect & Masculine Protest)

Manu, Adler's mention of Ludwig Klages (1872-1956) merits further acknowledgment. Dr. Klages presented his ideas about graphology on October 25, 1911 to the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society, provoking some discussion (including Freud) about the unconscious, sexuality, and the psychopathololgy of everyday life. Ansbacher provides a few of Klages' quotes about expressive movement on page 120 of The Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler. I found several references to Klages on the Internet, including comments like "the character of an individual is expressed in every movement," and references to "the unity of character," but his main legacy seems to be handwriting analysis. (My mentor, Sophia de Vries, studied briefly with Klages.) Nadya Olyanova, a graphologist, was apparently influenced somewhat by Adler, but oddly omits any reference to Klages in her 1936 book "Handwriting Tells." It would be interesting to read more about Klages' ideas on expressive movement. Is anyone aware of additional resources by Klages' on this topic in English?
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  #33  
Unread December 27th, 2004, 03:31 PM
Manu Jaaskelainen Manu Jaaskelainen is offline
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Default Re: Discussion of CCWAA, Vol. 3, Chapt. XI & XII (Organ Dialect & Masculine Protest)

Henry, I am not quite sure whether anything much more exists about Klages or by him in English. However, he was a philosopher and psychologist of some importance even outside graphology. The connection between Klages and graphology has been damaging for his appreciation as a philosopher and psychologist on his own right. Graphology is very unpopular as a scientific method method because it is so subjective, even if it might have some value as a diagnostic tool. This fact has led to an undervaluation of Ludwig Klages as a psychologist. However, Klages has published much on characterology and philosophy, but to my knowledge his books have hardly been translated into English. If I am wrong, please correct. He has written one textbook on characterology, and a large philosophical work "Geist als Widersacher der Seele", among many others.
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  #34  
Unread December 27th, 2004, 03:44 PM
Manu Jaaskelainen Manu Jaaskelainen is offline
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Default Re: Discussion of CCWAA, Vol. 3, Chapt. VIII-X (Resistance, Sexual Fears, Adler Resigns)

I think this idea of "aggression toward a benefactor" is of some interest and importance. In people who who were long time living under subjugation, you may see a fierce reaction against benefactors if they meet a sympathetic ear, or someone who is willing to help them. This kind of reaction may possibly have even some political consequences if the feeling is common to a whole group of people, or even to a whole nation, or ethnic part of some nation. The aggression that was restrained under fear, now has a possibility to find an outlet. The subjugated and fearful people feel now free to give expression to their negative feelings. Now they have an object that is not willing to do harm to them. The dam breaks, and open aggression is the result.
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  #35  
Unread December 30th, 2004, 05:54 PM
Henry Stein Henry Stein is offline
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Default Re: Cumulative Discussion of CCWAA, Volume 3, Chapters I-X

This dynamics is also frequently present in children who are brought to a therapist because of their "passivity." As they become more active, in the saftey of the therapist's office, their initial expressions are usually aggressive, revealing the previously "covered up" resentments toward authority figures. Their activity is easier to increase, than any social interest at this point. When their aggression is met with understanding and empathy, they are often confused, and may increase the attacks to test the territory. Gradually, the persistent good will of the therapist may penetrate their well-honed defenses, and reach an under-fed appetite for warmth and connection. Some children simply need to be enjoyed by an adult for some period of time, to counteract the long-term irritation and rejection of their circle of adults.
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  #36  
Unread December 30th, 2004, 06:02 PM
Henry Stein Henry Stein is offline
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Default Discussion of CCWAA, Vol. 3, Ch. XIII & XIV (Hallucination, Parent Education)

On January 3rd, we will begin a discussion of The Collected Clinical Works of Alfred Adler, Volume 3, Chapters XIII & XIV. The following chapter summaries were prepared by Manu Jaaskelainen.

Chapter XIII “On the Theory of Hallucination” examines the psychological dynamics and functions of the hallucinations. Adler starts presenting a short criticism of a physicalistic and materialist theory of the mind. Psychology cannot be based on the physical transmittance of chemical chain-reactions in the nervous system; mind is an organ that relates the person to the world and guides the will in a direction characteristic of the individual. The Adler continues discussing hallucinations in the light of some case studies. Adler demonstrates that hallucinations are a means of psychological and social adaptation that leads the person astray. A hallucinating person builds for himself/herself a second world in which hallucination has validity because logic no longer matters so much.

Chapter XIV “On Educating Parents” is a study on a difficult theme that was to become one of Adler’s trade-marks. Adler remarks that children exhibit the tendency to resist the word as well as the authority of the educators. There are some important comments on the aggression of the child, and how to handle it. Adler says, somewhat surprisingly, that “the best advice is to learn from children.” Adler denies that there are any universal rules. Pedagogy is not science but art. There are so many fine observations in this paper that it is impossible to try to summarize them. Then Adler makes a classification of the problems of the educators, and how to help them to alleviate these problems. Adler concludes that the educators with problems are often very similar to neurotic persons. “The primary characteristic of such people is the struggle against the other sex.” One way to alleviate these problems in the long term is to have more equality in society, especially equality between sexes.

To prepare for a discussion of Volume 3 of "The Collected Clinical Works of Alfred Adler," order your copy at http://go.ourworld.nu/hstein/cwaa-v3.htm.
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  #37  
Unread January 2nd, 2005, 08:49 AM
Manu Jaaskelainen Manu Jaaskelainen is offline
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Default Re: Discussion of CCWAA, Vol. 3, Chapt. XI & XII (Organ Dialect & Masculine Protest)

Klages has written a two-volume work, "Geist als Widersacher der Seele" (third edition 1954). It is a huge book, comprising totally over 1500 pages. Its sheer size makes it difficult to read. However, the book contains a number of useful and interesting chapters. Reading them makes almost fun. The chapter that contains some relevant ideas on expressive movements, is Chapter 62 "Bewegungserlebnis". In this chapter, Klages argues that expressive movements are conditioned by the emotional system prevailing in the person. This word refers to sentiments, to use the terminology first coined by William James, if I remember correctly. The sentiments are the longer-term emotional systems characteristic for the individual, in contrast to emotions and affects. If the emotions grow stronger, this may lead to a domination of the affects. Some other persons nearby may experience the expressive movements emitted by the individual; this leads to a feeling that one is moved. For this phenomenon, Klages is using the term "Mitbewegtsein", i.e. a social feeling conditioned by the sight of the expressive movements. A modern concept is "empathy", or "sympathy". Klages' is not very easy to read, nor is it easy to translate. It contains a number of difficult German concepts that presume some knowledge in German in order to be understood, e.g. concepts like "Fürsichsein", or "Selbstbewegung". Klages says that one should make a difference between "expressive movements" and "being moved by other persons". Another important concept is the polarity of the movement. This discussion may be found in Chapter 74, on "Magna Mater", a discussion on the symbolism of feminine traits. This chapter is devoted to an examination of the ideas presented by Johann Jakob Bachofen (1815-1887). For a useful summary of Bachofen's ideas, see Henri F. Ellenberger's "The Discovery of the Unconscious", p. 281 ff. In every expressive movement, there is, according to Klages a certain polarity. One may find an element of the space (feminine element, space means "resting"), or an element of movement (masculine element, "going forward"). In his graphological texts, Klages finds some more polarities: the ego is dominating ("reason"), or the impulses are dominating ("lack or control"), or the emotions are dominating ("easily moved"), or the social feelings are dominating ("super-ego - personality"), and so on. Klages' idea is that the human personality is at same time an undivided whole, and a deeply divided being: the essence of the person appears in every single movement; but, on the other side, every person possesses certain polarities, traits that are contradictory. It is easy to understand that Adler was impressed by Klages' multifaceted psychology.
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  #38  
Unread January 2nd, 2005, 11:55 AM
Henry Stein Henry Stein is offline
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Default Re: Discussion of CCWAA, Vol. 3, Chapt. XI & XII (Organ Dialect & Masculine Protest)

Manu, I appreciate your willingness to sift through Klages' dense writings and offer us your insights. I explored some of my archived notes and found a short passage from the personal notes of Sophia de Vries, titled "Dr. Ludwig Klages: The Theory of Temperament. Amersfoort, 2-3 November 1935." (This is a translation of her handwritten notes in Dutch, by Cees Koen. Unfortunately, these personal notes are merely fragments of what was discussed.)
Psychology has existed since Aristotle. It has developed from scientific curiosity: Which attitude will provide us with insight in human nature? (Welche Haltung gewährleistet Menschenkenntnis?) [It is] conceived as an apparatus of thought and insight (Denk- und Erkenntnisapparat). How can man succeed in recognizing what is true and real? (Wie kommt der Mensch dazu das Wahre zu erkennen?) There are ‘units of meaning' and ‘concepts' (Bedeutungseinheiten und Begriffe). Words are ‘units of meaning,' not ‘concepts.' The use of ‘concepts' allows us to be scientific. With the notion of ‘concept,' philosophy was discovered. ‘Meanings' (Bedeutungen) are experienced (cf. Mühling-Lenz), they cannot be learned, ‘concepts' do not allow themselves to be ‘sensed.' A ‘concept' is something well-defined which cannot be replaced by anything else. ‘Units of meaning' are subject to change. Speech is changing constantly, and among illiterates the change of speech takes place much faster than among those peoples that have developed script. Among [American] Indians, for example, it may occur that grandparents are unable to understand the speech of their grandchildren in the meaning of its words. It seems deceptive that the ‘concept' would already exist if words are being spoken. Since about 150 years we know the division of thinking, willing and feeling. Feeling is a later addition. In classical [Greek and Roman] times, in scholasticism or in the Renaissance, this division was not known. The Greeks did not have a word for feeling and feelings. ‘Pathos' has a different meaning. Power of imagination: thinking. Power of desire: willing. For a long time, there existed a division in four elements. The reason for this should be sought in the fact that four was the sacred number of the Pythagoreans.
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Last edited by Henry Stein; January 2nd, 2005 at 09:28 PM. Reason: Corrected spelling.
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  #39  
Unread January 4th, 2005, 08:33 AM
Rita Schaad Rita Schaad is offline
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Default Re: Cumulative Discussion of CCWAA, Volume 3, Chapters I-XII

A good new Year to all of you and thanks for giving me so much 'stuff' to think about.
That final and fictive goal surely intrigues me. Is it possible to really pinpoint this 'magnetic pulling point' and put words to it. (How) - Can I find my own fictive goal in my unconscious or would I need to be guided and listened to by a (Adlerian Therapist!?) vis-a-vis?

Another question I have - when yhou speak of neurotic and neurosis - what is really meant by that.
To me it looks like to be a blockage in someone, where life cannot flow freely, where evolutionary growth (in the mental sense) cannot take place because of it.
But I would love to hear from you
Rita
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  #40  
Unread January 4th, 2005, 05:56 PM
Henry Stein Henry Stein is offline
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Default Re: Cumulative Discussion of CCWAA, Volume 3, Chapters I-XII

Rita, to my knowledge, it is improbable that an individual would be able to identify his/her own fictional final goal (even a Classical Adlerian psychotherapist in training needs a study-analyst to provide this insight). Essentially, the goal needs to remain unconscious so that it is protected from critical analysis (it is almost sacred, promising subjectively imagined success, significance, and security). Uncovering this goal is quite an art, and can only be done after eliciting a relevant history of the individual. Positing this goal represents a creative act in the life of the individual, and discovering it requires the creative intuition of the therapist. Also, the style of life, (the repetitive approaches to life's tasks) needs to examined for the real benefits or burdens to the individual and others.

It is fascinating to explore options for solving life's problems with a client, and discover that an individual in the grip of his own fictional final goal, cannot think of alternative strategies that do not lead to his goal. After these alternatives are discovered (Socratically), he/she may admit that they make sense, but they then usually have an emotional resistance to putting these alternatives into practice.

Some varieties of Adlerian therapy consider it sufficient for a client to become aware of his/her goal and perhaps make modest alterations of the style of life attached to it. Classical Adlerian psychotherapy offers the opportunity to "dissolve" both, and function at a higher level of creative "growth motivation" (described eloquently by Abraham Maslow).

Neurosis is indeed a failure of personal growth. The individual stops short of their best human potential, usually because they are confronted with problems that cannot be solved in line with their current direction. Consequently, stress and symptoms develop that may become excuses to avoid the difficulty. The retention and exploitation of theses symptoms is generally what constitutes a neurosis. Therapies that merely address symptoms, do no more than blow away the smoke, without putting out the fire. (In theses cases, it is not uncommon for a new symptom to appear after the old one has been extinguished; all of the symtoms could serve the same purpose.)
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