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  #21  
Unread October 15th, 2005, 12:10 AM
Henry Stein Henry Stein is offline
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Default Discussion of CCWAA, Vol. 6, Chapt. XXII & XXIII (Enuresis, Crime)

On October 17th, we will begin a discussion of The Collected Clinical Works of Alfred Adler, Volume 6, Chapters XXII & XXIII. The following chapter summaries were prepared by Manu Jaaskelainen.

Ch. XXII A Case of Enuresis Diurnal (1930) is a paper on the problems of caused by enuresis. Adler defines enuresis as a movement that has a goal, even by indelicate means, of establishing contact with the mother. The paper is a stenographic case study. Adler says that it is not organic illness; this conception might not be viewed as totally accurate today. Some people feel that some problems in the CNS might contribute to this disturbance. Nor are we today ready to view this slight disturbance as such a great problem as earlier generations did. There has been other theories of this disturbance, e.g. the learning-theoretical version. However, Adler's case study is a very interesting one. He decries in eloquent fashion how the child attempt to establish contacts and closer relationships with grown-up persons. Adler describes how the child's attempts at communication have two basic traits: 1) organ inferiority of the bladder, 2) the child uses the language of the bladder. Adler presents his analysis of the situation of a 12 years old boy who had the feeling that he did not get enough love; the his symptoms began. "An accusation is the same as an attack."

Ch. XXIII Individual Psychology and Crime (1930) is a study on criminology. Adler points out that he has not been inquiring so much into particular crimes as into the lives of individual men and women. Adler says that all people, criminals or not, strive to reach a goal in future, by attaining which we will feel strong, superior, complete. Adler refers here to John Dewey, the US philosopher. Dewey prefers to call this phenomenon as the striving for security. It is not this striving as such that makes a criminal, but the direction his striving takes. A criminal fails to understand the demands of the social life, or to be concerned with his fellow-people. According to Adler, criminals are not insane. He rejects any ideas of biological or environmental determination. It can different in the case of some psychotic people, but these cases are rare. Really criminal actions are planned, and some presume a high level of criminal intelligence and private logic. Social interest is deeply disturbed, in some cases non-existent. "A criminal is not interested in others. He can cooperate only to a certain degree. When this degree is exhausted, he turns to crime. The exhaustion occurs when a problem is too difficult for him." Adler seems to think that it is necessary to have educational counseling at schools. The roots of this evil are in the development of young people. If a criminal lifestyle is adopted, someone should have the possibility to stop this type of development early, before any serious offenses are committed. There should be experts available to discuss with children their individual problems and to solve these problems in a constructive and creative way.

To order your copy of Volume 6, go to http://go.ourworld.nu/hstein/cwaa-v6.htm .
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Henry T. Stein, Ph.D,

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  #22  
Unread October 23rd, 2005, 09:49 AM
Henry Stein Henry Stein is offline
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Default Discussion of CCWAA, Vol. 6, Chapt. XXIV & XXV (Meaning of LIfe, Neurotic Tricks)

On October 24th, we will begin a discussion of The Collected Clinical Works of Alfred Adler, Volume 6, Chapters XXIV & XXV. The following chapter summaries were prepared by Manu Jaaskelainen.

Ch. XXIV The Meaning of Life (1931) is a paper on a subject that was a pervasive one in Adler's thinking. Adler begins exploring the dividion of labor in society--this idea leads to the necessity of cooperation. Human beings find the meaning of their life in human society and in common experiences. Today we would like to say that the key to the meaning of life is in sharing common experiences and common values. This is "common sense" or social interest: "Those who have demonstrated belonging to the community understand common sense. ... Feeling valuable results from a successful contribution to others and is the only direction in which the average inferiority feelings of people experience a successful compensation. To be valuable means to have contributed. Thus, human happiness can be found only in applied social interest."

Ch. XXV Trick and Neurosis (1931) is another favorite theme of Adler. "Tricks" as Adler calls them, are a pervasive quality of all human life. All human achievements and inventions are products of some "tricks". Poetry, dreams, and magic are products of some "tricks" or "trickiness". However, in human neuroses tricks a highly problematic function. Jokes are in the main harmless, but neurotic tricks are not so harmless. They serve the function of keeping the person permanently alienated from social realities. The paper contains numerous examples of neurotic tricks. It is the task of Individual Psychology to show the individual his/her trick and convince him/her that he/she has employed this trick without knowing it. It can serve the means to avoid challenges and social facts. Often, the insecurity of the person is not real; in fact, he or she has no need for "tricks".

To order your copy of Volume 6, go to http://go.ourworld.nu/hstein/cwaa-v6.htm .
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Henry T. Stein, Ph.D,

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  #23  
Unread October 28th, 2005, 12:34 PM
Henry Stein Henry Stein is offline
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Default Discussion of CCWAA, Vol. 6, Chapt. XXVI (The Structure of Neurosis)

On October 31st, we will begin a discussion of The Collected Clinical Works of Alfred Adler, Volume 6, Chapters XXVI. The following chapter summary was prepared by Manu Jaaskelainen.

Ch. XXVI The Structure of Neurosis (1931) is, in the opinion this reviewer, one of the best and most interesting papers Adler wrote. The chapter is well-organized, there is less rambling than in many other papers written by him, and its argument is logical, well-founded, and concise. The paper contains not only Adler's theory of neuroses, but also some important comments on his theory of general psychology as well. The paper was originally written for Lancet. The paper begins with a list of examples of the symptoms of neuroses. Adler presents a criticism of Watson's behaviorism and any psychology that includes the various manifestations of human personality. In order to organize this data, there is a need for theoretical insight "to understand the context of data which may lead beyond the province of experience." The essence of life is motion; every movement has a goal. The inferiority feeling includes a minus and a plus simultaneously - a feeling of inferiority and a striving to superiority. All individuals possess a typical, individual and different way of compensating for their feeling of inferiority. The basic problem in neurosis is the [relative] lack of social feeling, or social interest. To understand a neurotic person, we must recognize the individual as a unity. All neurotic symptoms are safeguards, the means to save face, while at the same time avoiding to meet the real challenges of life.

To order your copy of Volume 6, go to http://go.ourworld.nu/hstein/cwaa-v6.htm .
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Henry T. Stein, Ph.D,

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