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Unread March 19th, 2007, 12:10 PM
James Brody James Brody is offline
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Default Nietzsche on Cognitive Therapy

Nietzsche (1844-1900) scribbled the following about self control. The overlap with modern ideas is remarkable and I suspect our sense of emergent networks and the competitions that we experience from them within our minds led both Nietzsche and perhaps Tim Beck to their discoveries. I found Fred's words in Mencken's introduction.

JB
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p 161 "Self control, says Nietzsche, consists merely of combating a given desire with a stronger one....In general there are but six ways in which a given craving may be overcome. First, we may avoid opportunities for its gratification and so, by a long disuse, weaken and destroy it. Secondly, we may regulate its gratification and by thus encompassing its flux and reflux within fixed limits, gain intervals during which it is faint. Thirdly, we may occasionally give ourselves over to it and so wear it out by excess--provided we do not act like the rider who lets a runaway horse gallop itself to death and, in so doing, breaks his own neck, which unluckily is the rule in this method. Fourthly, by an intellectual trick, we may associate gratification with an unpleasant idea as we have associated sexual gratification, for example, with indecency. Fifthly, we may find a substitute in some other craving that is measurably less dangerous. Sixthly, we may find safety in a general war upon all cravings, good or bad alike, after the manner of the ascetic, who, in seeking to destroy his sensuality, at the same time destroys his physical strength, his reason, and not infrequently, his life."

Reference
Mencken HL (1908/2006) The Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche. NY: Barnes & Noble.
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Unread February 19th, 2008, 04:20 PM
James Brody James Brody is offline
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Smile Re: Nietzsche on Cognitive Therapy

"Reappraisal May Be Key to Anger Management"
from Journal Watch, Psychiatry, 2/15/08

"Anger management, often a focus of clinical attention, is easier when people reappraise anger-evoking events, rather than ruminate...
Rumination keeps negative events in mind, maintains negative emotions, and has been associated with depression. Reappraisal also keeps negative events in mind but changes their interpretation. Few studies have compared the effects of rumination and reappraisal. The current report concerns two studies of these approaches to anger, one evaluating psychological effects and the other combined physiological and psychological effects...This was a study of women college students, so these results may not be fully generalizable to men or to clinical populations."

— M. Katherine Shear, MD


Citation(s):

Ray RD et al. All in the mind's eye? Anger rumination and reappraisal. J Pers Soc Psychol 2008 Jan; 94:133.

from Medline

"Research on rumination has demonstrated that compared with distraction, rumination intensifies and prolongs negative emotion. However, rumination and distraction differ both in what one thinks about and how one thinks about it. Do the negative outcomes of rumination result from how people think about negative events or simply that they think about them at all? To address this question, participants in 2 studies recalled a recent anger-provoking event and then thought about it in 1 of 2 ways: by ruminating or by reappraising. The authors examined the impact of these strategies on subsequent ratings of anger experience (Study 1) as well as on perseverative thinking and physiological responding over time (Study 2). Relative to reappraisal, rumination led to greater anger experience, more cognitive perseveration, and greater sympathetic nervous system activation. These findings provide compelling new evidence that how one thinks about an emotional event can shape the emotional response one has. Copyright 2008 APA, all rights reserved."
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