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  #1  
Unread November 15th, 2004, 08:44 PM
Henry Stein Henry Stein is offline
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Default Cumulative Discussion of CCWAA, Volume 3, Chapters I-XXIV

This is a cumulative thread containing the messages for The Collected Clinical Works of Alfred Adler, Volume 3, Journal Articles 1898-1909. The messages covering Chapters I-XXII are listed below.

To prepare for a discussion of Volume 3, order your copy at http://www.Adlerian.us/cwaa-v3.htm.
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Last edited by Henry Stein; February 27th, 2010 at 11:28 AM. Reason: Updating description.
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  #2  
Unread November 18th, 2004, 08:29 AM
Manu Jaaskelainen Manu Jaaskelainen is offline
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Default Re: Discussion of CCWAA, Volume 3, to Begin Nov. 22nd

I felt that it might be useful to prepare short summaries of the chapters I & II. In Chapter I, Psychological Hermaphroditism in Life and in the Neurosis (1910), Adler argues that there are male traits in women and female traits in men. Some of the arguments in the chapter are outdated and reflect attitudes that belong to a Victorian world. An intelligent reader is able to discern between arguments that are important even today, and arguments that are outdated. According to Adler, the child plays a dual role: on the other hand he or she expresses feminine, on the other hand masculine tendencies. Adler argues that the masculine protest develops as over-compensation because the "female" tendency is regarded as a childhood disorder. Adler lists some traits that may contribute to reinforcing female traits and secondarily reinforce masculine protest. Adler concludes that it is the task of the educators and the psychotherapists to uncover this dynamics and to raise it to consciousness.
Chapter II, Defiance and and Obedience (1910) discussses the complicated dynamics of early influences in the development of the mind of the child. According to Adler, the greatest influences come from family life. In a family, the child must restrain his/her drive expansion which conflicts with the child's tendency for seeking pleasure. Adler says that the child should learn to adjust to social activities and shed his playful desires for uninhibited organ activity. Adler discusses the birth of the inferiority complex and concludes that we are steering towards a time when everyone will be independent and free, no longer in the service of one person, but taking his/her rightful place in serving only one common idea, the promotion of physical and mental progress.
One should remember that no summary can do justice to the complicated argumentation presented by Adler in his papers, so this is only the barest outline. One should read the original chapters in CCWAA, Vol. 3.

Last edited by Manu Jaaskelainen; November 19th, 2004 at 05:29 PM.
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  #3  
Unread November 20th, 2004, 04:54 PM
Manu Jaaskelainen Manu Jaaskelainen is offline
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Default Re: Discussion of CCWAA, Volume 3, to Begin Nov. 22nd

I would like to add some comments to the above summary. In chapter I, psychological and biological hermaphroditism id discussed. This discussion is very typical for the time-period a century ago. It was not debated among psychoanalysts, but in other circles as well. Jung built up a psychological and philosophical system that is to a large degree based on this idea. Weininger whose name is mentioned in this paper, was a young, very gifted and very intelligent man, a real idealist, who wrote a popular book about this theme but later on, killed himself in the Beethoven-house in Vienna. After his death, the became an instant success, and it run for more than twenty editions. It influenced persons like Strindberg, and its influence on young intellectuals was "tremendous" as a Finnish writer describes it in a later essay on Weininger. Adler's contribution is a part of this discussion. In the end of this paper, there is citation: "The individual, who earlier was 'a toy for dark and unconscious emotions, becomes a conscious master over his feelings, able to endure them.' " This quotation is almost certainly from Freud. I have made some checks in Ludwig Eidelberg's "Encyclopaedia of Psychoanalysis", and there the same idea is expressed in almost same words. So I presume that the citation is based on Freud, but the wording may have slightly changed as Adler has adapted the quotation. However, in the paper you also find the idea of "masculine protest" that is Adler's own, and it was one of the few Adlerian ideas accepted by Freud.
Concerning the chapter II on Defiance and Obedience, I would emphasize the preventive ideas in the paper. Adler take up the theme of the equality of women (p. 15) that "must a critical pedagogical requirement". This chapter reflects Adler's beliefs that human beings are equal and free, and they must have the freedom to choose themselves. Obedience is not a result of a hard discipline, but it is a responsible use of the freedom one has as a human being. Authority does no good, the right methos is to find a balance between freedom and resposibility. Exercising free and rational judgement leads to socially useful and self-disciplined behavior.

Last edited by Manu Jaaskelainen; November 20th, 2004 at 05:04 PM. Reason: Some additions
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  #4  
Unread November 23rd, 2004, 08:57 PM
Henry Stein Henry Stein is offline
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Default Re: Discussion of CCWAA, Volume 3, Chapters I & II

As a background for the issues related to "male" and "female" traits," as well as "the masculine protest," it is interesting to consider the works of the Dutch anthropologists, Mathide and Mathias Vaerting. In their fascinating book The Dominant Sex, they explore the thesis that what we call "masculine" qualities are merely the qualities of the dominant sex; and that what we call "feminine" qualities are merely the qualities of a subordinate sex. They amplify their claim by identifying historical cultures of feminine, masculine, and shared dominance, and then describe the varying expressions of character, appearance, division of labor, care of children, sexuality, marriage, religion, and politics.
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Unread November 26th, 2004, 10:40 AM
Henry Stein Henry Stein is offline
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Default Re: Discussion of CCWAA, Volume 3, Chapters I & II (Male/Female - Obedience/Rebellion)

Two other Adlerians have also addressed some of the historical issues of male/female equality/inequality. Sofie Lazarsfeld, in Woman's Experience of the Male, refers to the Swiss legal historian Bachofen's assumption about an original matriarchy. He studied the connections between sexual relationships and cultural developments, and the differences in female and male dominated societies. Olga Knopf, in The Art of Being a Woman, discusses the contrast between the equality of the sexes in ancient Egypt, and the subjugation of women in ancient Greece. Women were not thought worthy of love, but only for procreation and amusement. The tenderest emotional relations of a man were reserved for his own sex. In Greece and Rome there were many women who were in open revolt against their subordinate, feminine role. Knopf concludes that wherever women are denied open power, they will seek to obtain influence by subterfuge; it is impossible for a human being to remain satisfied in a position of inferiority.
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Unread November 26th, 2004, 10:57 AM
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Default Discussion of CCWAA, Volume 3, Chapters III-V (Neurotic Traits, Dreams & Jung)

On November 29th, we will begin a discussion of The Collected Clinical Works of Alfred Adler, Volume 3, Chapters III-V. The following chapter summaries were prepared by Manu Jaaskelainen.

Ch. III, "The Psychic Treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia". In this paper from 1910, Adler explores some very important aspects of psychosomatics. "Among the nervous symptoms that burden the life, relieve the individual from having to do anything and thereby greatly abrogate all social responsibilities, painful sensations play a significant role." (p. 17). This statement in the very beginning of the chapter defines the main message of this paper. Adler explores here the main neurotic behavioral traits in children as well as in adults and concludes that the neurotic exhibits a significant number of interrelated character traits which are designed to systematically enchance or inhibit one another. Adler proceeds to study trigeminal neuralgia and some other psychosomatic disorders and concludes in the end of the paper that the key to a psychologically healthy life is to be found by changing the lifestyle, by strenghthening the ability to cooperate.

Ch. IV "Fabricated Dream" from 1910 (A Contribution to the Mechanism of Lying in Neurosis), Adler discusses the functions of lying in neurosis. The chapter begins with with a reference to "a revolt of the Helots". On may wonder, what these people were. They were the slaves of the Spartans, a militaristic tribe in ancient Greece. Adler refers to some cases where the clients want to humiliate the physician. Such arrogance hardly exists among people who are equals, so it is a sign of inferiority if the client wants to humiliate the professional person who is there only to help him or her. This idea reminds one very strongly of Nietzsche. Again, Adler illustrates his arguments with a number of interesting cases. In the end of the paper, Adler concludes that "loyalty and harmony can be only be found deep down." There are no lies in the unconscious, says Adler. This paper is very much influenced by Freud. It was originally a paper presented in Vienna Psychoanalytic Society in 1910. The tensions between Adler and Freud were mounting, and next year the final breakup between the two men would follow.

Ch. V is a review of a paper by C.G.Jung from 1910. At that time, Adler was still the editor of The Journal for Psychoanalysis where he published a number of reviews of different books and papers. Jung's paper discussed the conflicts of the mind of the child. Jung is using his own daughter as an example. Adler's review is very interesting in a historical sense. He thinks that Jung's contribution is "valuable", and his interpretations astute as well as intelligently moderate. Acording to Adler, Jung's paper is strictly Freudian. Adler refers both to Freud's study of the "Little Hans" and his own studies. However, in the end of the paper Adler's conclusions are already very Adlerian ("...The child tries to gain security through fear and knowledge.") Later on, Jung commented Adler's work very favorably. In 1930'ies, Adler criticized Jung for "a neurosis of deference" ("Mitläufer") because Jung had accepted the position of a president of the International Society for Psychotherapy, a Nazi-sponsored organization. In spite of all the political heat and errors that may remain in history. this early paper serves as a reminder that there are some interesting points of contact between Adler and Jung.

To prepare for a discussion of Volume 3 of "The Collected Clinical Works of Alfred Adler," order your copy at http://go.ourworld.nu/hstein/cwaa-v3.htm.
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Last edited by Henry Stein; December 2nd, 2004 at 01:33 PM. Reason: Corrected information.
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  #7  
Unread December 2nd, 2004, 11:09 AM
Henry Stein Henry Stein is offline
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Default Re: Discussion of CCWAA, Volume 3, Chapters III-V (Neurotic Traits, Dreams & Jung)

Another interesting perspective on lying is offered by Clara and William Stern in Recollection, Testimony, and Lying in Early Childhood (translation by James Lamiell). They discuss issues of recall, false testimony, mistaken recollections, pseudo-lies, and genuine lies. They include chapters on "The Origin of Lying and Is Prevention" and "The Capability of Small Children as Witnesses in Legal Proceedings."
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Unread December 2nd, 2004, 01:49 PM
Henry Stein Henry Stein is offline
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Default Discussion of CCWAA, Volume 3, Chapters VI & VII (Sexuality, Repression, & Protest)

On December 6th we will begin a discussion of The Collected Clinical Works of Alfred Adler, Volume 3, Chapter VI, The Role of Sexuality in Neurosis, and Chapter VII, Repression and Masculine Protest: Their Roles and Meaning for the Neurotic Dynamic.

To prepare for a discussion of Volume 3 of "The Collected Clinical Works of Alfred Adler," order your copy at http://go.ourworld.nu/hstein/cwaa-v3.htm.
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Unread December 4th, 2004, 10:18 AM
Henry Stein Henry Stein is offline
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Default Re: Discussion of CCWAA, Volume 3, Chapters VI & VII (Sexuality, Repression, Protest)

The following chapter summaries were prepared by Manu Jaaskelainen.

In Ch. VI, "The Role of Sexuality in Neurosis", Adler explores the relationships between neurosis and sexuality. In the very beginning of the chapter, he says that sexuality is an important part in everyone's life, so it is a part of neurosis, too. However, he points out that it is an untenable statement that every drive has a sexual component. The paper was presented in Freud's Association in 1911 during the "Great Schism", so Adler's statement has a special significance. Instead of sexuality, Adler emphasizes the importance of the inferiority complex in the development of neurosis. A number of interesting case-studies are presented.

The second paper, Ch. VII on "Repression and Masculine Protest: Their Roles and Meaning for the Neurotic Dynamic," develops Adler's theories on those topics. This paper was also presented before Freud's Association. Here Adler rejects some psychoanalytic explanations provided by the Freudians but he accepts Freud's concept of repression as such. Adler states that the repression takes place under the pressures of culture and under the pressure of the "ego drives". Here Adler formulates for the first time very explicitly his cultural and social conceptions that were to play so important role in his future thinking. Later on in this chapter, Adler develops his ideas concerning the role of the experience of humiliation in the development of neurosis. This leads to feelings of inferiority and a masculine protest, an attempt to compensate for the inferiority. The chapter contains a number of interesting case-studies.
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Last edited by Henry Stein; December 9th, 2004 at 10:02 PM. Reason: Corrected chapter numbers.
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  #10  
Unread December 5th, 2004, 04:04 PM
Manu Jaaskelainen Manu Jaaskelainen is offline
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Default Re: Discussion of CCWAA, Volume 3, Chapters III-V (Neurotic Traits, Dreams & Jung)

A summary of the observations and theories in the monograph by Clara and William Stern can be found in the book written by William Stern "Psychologie der frühen Kindheit" [Psychology of The Early Childhood], seventh edition in 1952. See the last chapter XXXVIII, on the theme lying. William Stern refers in the subtitle of the book to his wife's (Clara Stern) diaries ("Mit Benutzung ungedruckter Tagebücher von Clara Stern"). First edition was printed in 1914 in Breslau. In this book William Stern argues that children (as well as adults) possess a certain psychological defense-mechanism to protect themselves agains embarrassing thoughts, stimuli, or other inner or outer effects. This is implicit in the use of the word "no". From these defense-mechanisms there may emerge some behavioral patterns that Stern calls "the seeds of lying" ("Lügenkeime"). In situations where people are afraid or anxious, the first reaction is often to try to shrug off the embarrassing truth, as if the real situation were not there. Sometimes this negations is expressed in words, sometimes in nonverbal expressions. This is not yet real lying-behavior; lying is a serious and conscious use of deception. In children, the most common type of lies are what Stern calls "Angstlügen" ("lies of angst"). I use the word "angst" here because the German word "Angst" is not really "anxiety" that is only a specific form of Angst. According to Stern, there is a causal connection between the disposition to tell lies and the external use of various forms of punishment. Lying and the severity of punishment are correlated: the more severe punishments are employed (by parents and/or educators), the more the child tends to tell lies in order to defend himself/herself against the consequences of the impending punishments.
William Stern refers in the beginning of the chapter to his and his wife's work, and to publications by Franziska Baumgarten, Otto Kaus (an Adlerian), and Reininger.
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