Rothbaum, B.O. (1997) A controlled study of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disordered sexual assault victims. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 61, 317-334.
After three treatment sessions, 90% of the rape victims treated with EMDR no longer had the diagnosis of PTSD. All scales showed improvement.
In contrast, the only other published controlled study of rape victims with flooding and stress inoculation therapy, indicated that after 7 treatment sessions, 45% in each condition still met the full criteria for PTSD: Foa, E.B. Olasov Rothbaum, B., Riggs, D.S. Murdock, T.B. (1991) Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in rape victims: a comparison between cognitive behavioral procedures and counseling. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 715-723.
Since the exposure condition of the Foa et al. study used a composite of approximately 25 exposure hours (treatment sessions and daily homework) there are clearly other procedural elements responsible for the rapid treatment effects with EMDR. In contrast, the Rothbaum study used only three 90-minute sessions and no homework to achieve comparable effect sizes with 90% of the participants.